Specialists include a number of angiosperms to the group of melliferous plants, the flowers of which are equipped with specific glands (nectaries) that produce a sugary liquid. Outwardly, they look like flat hillocks, tubercles or grooves located at the base of the bud, on stems, petioles, stipules, bracts. The processes of nectar synthesis are aimed at creating conditions for cross-pollination of plants.
Meadow and forest grasses, as well as agricultural, fruit and berry, park or ornamental crops can act as honey plants. Most of them have strong medicinal properties. The most effective honey plants belong to the legume families, rosaceae, labiales, Asteraceae, and buckwheat.< /p>
The type of vegetation, weather conditions, geographic location and time of day affect the time of budding and the volume of sugars produced. For example, oregano synthesizes more nectar in the morning, and lungwort in the evening. From the sugars collected from the flowers, the bees produce the products necessary for their life: honey, bee bread, propolis, ouzu.
Classification of honey plants
Herbs for beekeeping are classified according to several criteria. Depending on the time of flowering, they are divided into:
- the same age;
- early summer;
According to the features of the structure and purpose for bees, they distinguish:
- Nectar plants – rare plants (for example, eyelids) with extrafloral nectar glands;
- Pilzenoses (birch, grapes, hazel) are distinguished by soft, abundant flowering;
- Nectaropilcenoses (acacia, buckwheat) are sources of both components of bee nutrition.
Depending on life expectancy, beekeepers divide herbs into annual, biennial and perennial honey plants. They are wild and cultivated. “Working” with the first variety is more difficult, because you have to roam from one field to another, depending on the period of mass flowering. Plants from which bees readily collect pollen are selected so that the activity of grasses alternates. This allows you to provide a constant opportunity for honey collection.
The best honey plants for bees
The productivity of grasses and trees is very different, but beekeepers identify a number of plants that consistently provide a good collection of product. Let us analyze in more detail the best honey plants for bees.
This evergreen shrub blooms from July to September and is valued by beekeepers as a late honey plant. Heather grows in Eastern and Western Siberia, as well as in the European part of Russia. Even poor soils of swamps, mountain slopes, peat bogs are suitable for him. The shrub brings up to 100 kg/ha of nectar. Honey comes out of it with bitterness, viscous, fragrant, dark red.
Pseudo-grain culture is one of the best honey plants, giving nectar from 70 to 200 kg/ha. Annual buckwheat is a valuable green manure, saturating the earth with compounds of potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The grass blooms from late June to mid-August. Buckwheat honey has a characteristic dark brown color, a sharp taste and smell, and is quickly candied.
12 species of sweet clover grow on the territory of the Russian Federation. Grass can be one or two years old. The first varieties bloom in August-September, the second – in the summer, once every two years. Plant productivity reaches 500 kg/ha. The sweet clover product turns out yellowish-white, slightly bitter, with a grassy aroma.
A perennial plant of the Astrov family belongs to late honey plants. Provides the needs of bees for nectar and pollen before the winter winter.
Goldenrod brings an average of 150 kg/ha of nectar. Honey from it turns out golden yellow with a pronounced smell, barely noticeable bitterness.
Ivan tea (fireweed)
Perennial grass is a powerful mature honey plant, its productivity reaches 600 kg of honey per hectare. The finished product is transparent, slightly greenish, endowed with a delicate aroma. Candied, forms a plum-like mass. When heated, it acquires a yellow tint. It has soothing and anti-inflammatory properties.
Related to fodder plants, requires good soil moisture, does not produce in drought. White clover is less rich in sugar than red or Persian clover. Clover honey is transparent, very sweet with a delicate grassy smell. Crystallizes in small crumbs.
An annual plant, actively usedmine in cooking is like a spicy herb. It grows wild in the south. Coriander blooms in June-July, gives up to 500 kg/ha of honey. The product has an amber color, spicy”) aroma, caramel flavor. This is a medicinal honey plant, and its honey has antiseptic, analgesic properties, is effective in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as bronchi.
The flowering of this perennial falls on May-June. Insects extract about 4.5 kg of nectar per hectare of dandelion. Honey turns out thick, bright yellow, with a specific pungent taste and smell. It quickly crystallizes, there is no great commercial value. The product is mainly used for feeding bees in spring, as well as during insect brood.
This is a honey plant that blooms in autumn and summer. It is distinguished by high productivity, bees collect up to 400 kg of sow thistle per hectare.
Honeycomb honey turns whitish-yellow, has good nutritional properties. In folk medicine, it is used as a restorative after operations, as well as to maintain the health of the elderly and children, who are often exposed to various diseases.
An annual plant, in addition to seeds, also acts as a source of very useful honey, which has dietary, diuretic properties that strengthen the immune system. Sunflower blooms in July-August, brings up to 50 kg of product per hectare.
Liquid honey does not stay long, quickly candied, acquires a light yellow color, sometimes with a slightly greenish tint. It has a delicate aroma, pleasant, tart taste.
Unpretentious in content, an annual plant of the cruciferous family is presented in two forms: winter and spring. In the first case, flowering occurs in May-June, in the second – August-September. From one hectare of rapeseed comes out from 30 to 90 kg of nectar. Honey from this herb is white and thick. Crystallizes very quickly within a week.
Grass is one of the most valuable old honey plants. Its productivity reaches 800 kg of honey per hectare. The bruise product is highly valued as a sedative that is good for the cardiovascular system. Honey is light yellow, with a delicate taste and aroma. It has been rare for a long time. When sugared, a fine-crystalline precipitate forms in it.
This annual is one of the leaders among honey plants. Bees collect up to 650 kg of nectar per hectare of phacelia. The grass is unpretentious in care, resistant to pests. Flowering of the plant begins approximately 40 days after sowing, lasts up to one and a half months. Beekeepers usually sow phacelia in several stages, getting up to 4 nectar-bearing periods in one season.
In the people, this grass is called a paddling pool. It belongs to early honey plants, serves as an excellent means of recovery for bees after wintering. Chistyak, like all members of the buttercup family, prefers cool, moist areas. Insects receive up to 15 kg of honey per hectare of such grass.
What is the best way to sow honey plants?
For productive beekeeping, it is important, first of all, to provide insects with a food base. The collection of honey is divided into two stages:
- The main one is the accumulation of high quality stocks.
- Supporting – needed to restore the strength of the bees after wintering and prepare for the cold.
In order to provide insects with the necessary amount of food, it is necessary to grow honey plants of several varieties on the site that bloom at different times of the year.
Sowing of 30-40 species of plants is considered optimal for organizing a decent honey collection.
When organizing a plantation of honey plants, the following points should be considered:
- The main array of grasses should be located no further than 1.5 km from the apiary (this is the radius of the effective flight of bees);
- productive plants should cover large areas;
- It is important to ensure the species diversity of honey plants for bees.
When compiling a honey calendar, it is necessary to take into account the climate in the place where the apiary is organized. Nectar carriers should be chosen the most active, which will grow well on a particular type of land. And one more important point – bees do not like too well-groomed gardens. They prefer landscapes with unmowed lawns, few leaf litter, which are close in appearance to their natural habitat.
Honey plants are necessary to maintain the life of bees. When planning to create an apiary, choose places with a sufficient number of honey plants. If there is no such site nearby, you can plant perennial honey herbs that will attract bees.
Seeds from Smart Agro Plus: guaranteed quality for successful beekeeping in Ukraine
In modern beekeeping, one of the key success factors is the right choice of honey plant seeds. They play an important role in the formation of nutrient plants,active accumulation of nectar and pollen. In Ukraine, many beekeepers turn to Smart Agro Plus in search of quality honey plant seeds, and they are not disappointed.
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Each batch of seeds from Smart Agro Plus undergoes rigorous selection and testing for strength, resistance to diseases and pests. This ensures that you only get the best beekeeping honey seeds. Through this partnership, you will be able to create a favorable environment for the development of bees and the production of high quality honey.
“Smart Agro Plus” implies the importance of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem sustainability. Therefore, the company offers a variety of honey plant seeds, including those that help attract beneficial insects, create flower plantings, and maintain balance in the natural environment. This approach allows not only to increase the yield and quality of products, but also to make your beekeeping environmentally sustainable.
Smart Agro Plus offers advice and support to its clients at every stage of the process. They are ready to help you select the best honey plant seeds for your requirements and regional specifics. The company also offers information and advice on rearing techniques, fertilizers and pests to help you get the most out of your beekeeping.
Thus, the seeds from “Smart Agro Plus” will become your reliable partner in achieving success in beekeeping in Ukraine. Their quality, sustainability and individual approach will make your beekeeping more efficient and profitable. Count on Smart Agro Plus and enjoy a rich honey harvest, the well-being of bees and the prosperity of your farm.